Given that just about every piece from the equipment is less than 4 tonin fat and is mounted on an independent slide, it can be instead very easy to move by means of a bulldozer. Practice displays the machine is sensibly intended, which has the benefits of very simple in operation,reputable in operating, as well as the reduced operation height allow it to be easy to install, which won't need any concrete foundation, therefore, simple to dismantle. As it is 1st place into operation, it has employed in the dozen of mine.Zenith's gold washing plant is newly produced movable equipment for placer gold recovering.Operators can simply use the machine without having specific instruction.
Designed with the assistance of our cutting edge technology these hydraulic block making machines are widely used to make numerous blocks such as cavity, corner column, gutter, solid and more. Easy to install and highly efficient our machine is highly acknowledged across the construction industries.
4 or 8, in detail, first, the first vibrator classifier transfer step (S100), using the jaw crusher 200, waste concrete and natural aggregate introduced into the hopper 100 using 60 mm to 70 mm. Then, the aggregate is second crushed to a size of 40 mm or less by using the first compactor 300, and then the crushed aggregate is introduced into the first vibrator 400 through the conveyor belt. Primary crushing in size, the crushed aggregate is introduced into the first compactor 300 through the conveyor belt.
3 shows the container platform P in a perspective view. In the supply line 6 valves Y1 and Y2 are arranged, the valve Y1 between the inlet E2 and the conveyor 7 andthe valve Y2 between the conveyor 7 and the mixing tank 4. Additionally or instead, a vibrator may be provided, with which the biomass can be shaken in the storage container 1.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the homogenizer (11) comprises a preferably rotatably driven third shearing ring (51) arranged around the rotation axis (R), transversely to a circumferential direction of the third shearing Scheren pointing shear edge (57) or Schergegenkanten and the suspension from the gap in a between the second and the third shearing ring around the rotation axis (R) extending further gap is conveyed, so that they in a rotary drive of the first Scherkranzes (51) by means of shearing shear and Schergegenkanten with each other (57, 67) of the second and third Scherkranzes is crushed.Although the apparatus may comprise either only the comminutor or the homogenizer, it is preferred embodiments when both the comminutor and the homogenizer are provided. However, the cost-effectiveness of today's plants is not yet satisfactory. The mixing device may be formed by a piece of tubing having an inlet for the slurry, a further inlet for the organic solids, and an outlet for the suspension. The viscometer 30 is arranged outside of the mixing container 4 in the return line 19 upstream of the branching of the return line 19. The crusher 10, the optional mixing device 9, the homogenizer 11th and the pumps 7 are readily accessible and arranged and mounted so that they can be replaced individually without requiring the removal or modification of any of the other components. Accordingly, there is great interest in converting manure and other raw materials from agricultural and forestry production into organic waste from the food industry, municipalities and private s in fermenters in biogas. The starting materials or fractions may be individually or advantageously also in any combination ingredients of the dispersion which is produced by means of the device. This corresponds to an alternative to the process shown in Figures 1 and 2 procedures in which the crusher 10 is arranged in the material flow between the storage container 1 and the mixing container 4. The particles have a maximum extent of advantageously at most 2 mm, more preferably at most 1 mm. The two components are preferably matched to one another such that the fine comminutor ensures a comminution of the solid components to a maximum extent that is not greater than a maximum clear distance, the next closest in the circumferential direction shearing edges of the same Scherkranzes or in the radial direction, the shearing edges and Schergegenkanten radially next adjacent Have funnel rings of the homogenizer from each other.The container platform P has, as in the first embodiment, inlets E1 and E2 for liquid manure and organic solids and an outlet A for the dispersion. The coarse shredder or conveyer may still be disposed within the container, including an arrangement in an outlet section of the container.The storage tank 1 is integrated in the sense of the most efficient use of available space in the system of skeleton and container walls. It preferably processes the solids in a raw state in which they are produced directly or as waste, such as grass clippings, hay, straw, fodder plants, energy crops, silage, fruit and the like. This largest extension of the particles should not exceed 4 mm, more preferably 2 mm and more preferably 1 mm.Figures 5 and 6 show the fine grinder 10 of the two embodiments in a section and a view. 1 shows, in a process flow diagram, a device according to the invention in a first exemplary embodiment. Preferably, it comminutes the solids so far that they have a maximum extent of a maximum of 30 cm, more preferably a maximum of 20 cm.8 shows an arc section of one of the shear rings 51 and an arc section of a radially next shear ring 61.The invention relates to a method and a device for the treatment of liquid manure and organic solids for a fermentation, preferably for the production of biogas or fertilizers.The comments on the viscosity, in particular for the determination and water supply, and also for the water purging of components apply equally to the first embodiment.In preferred embodiments, the second shredder comprises a homogenizer which may form the pulverizer or be arranged downstream of a pulverizer for a pulverization as a third stage of shredding. The suspension is successively conveyed through the plurality of comminution stages and comminuted finer from stage to stage.Fig.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the platform (P) with the components arranged thereon above all has a width (B) of at most 3 m or height (H) of at most 5 m. The mixing container 4 has an outlet for a sump emptying, expediently as indicated at the lowest point of the mixing container 4. The fine grinder cuts up the solids, preferably tearing them apart.The feed line 6 leads the biomass via the fine grinder 10 and the mixing device 9 in the mixing container 4. The platform P has a floor, a ceiling and side walls. The inlet E2 serves as a connection to the pre-pit 5 present at the location of the respective biogas plant. The valves Y1 and Y2 may be simple shut-off valves or metering valves. Furthermore, it is possible to initiate the reduction of the viscosity via a control means 28 water in the container 4. In the homogenizer 11, this biomass is finely comminuted, dispersed and homogenized in this sense. About the other inlet E1 of the storage tank 1 is filled with the solids. On the other hand, the still existing small, uniformly finely divided solid particles serve the microorganisms in the fermenter as a stop, so that no additional support structures for the microorganisms must be introduced into the fermenter. The supply to the ultrasonic comminutor 22 takes place by means of a metering pump 21, which is arranged in a line between the collecting container 20 and the ultrasonic comminutor 22.The first crusher is preferably formed to break voluminous solids, such as potatoes and turnips, and rupture long cellulose fibers and rupture bales formed from fibrous material. the biomass is conveyed via the shredder 22 and the homogenizer 11 or bypassing the homogenizer 11 to the outlet A.The homogenizer comprises in preferred developments at least one, more preferably several, further comminution stages. For example, the ultrasonic grinder 22 is integrated into the stream of biomass. Since no standing waves can occur in the technique proposed here, a maximum tearing of the particles up to the nano range is given. The control means Y5 of FIG. In an alternative second variant, the mixing device is connected upstream of a mixing container, and a suspension formed by means of the mixing device is already conducted into the mixing container. Overall, the platform with the components arranged thereon can have dimensions that correspond to the dimensions of a containerwhich can be transported on a railway wagon or semi-trailer. This change of position on one level continues until level six.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the breaking and tearing tool (2) fulfills at least one of the following features:it has a screw conveyor with protruding fangs,it has a rotor with projecting fangs, which is arranged in a lower region of a container (1) for the solids and with at least one fang-proven wall of the container or a second rotor with projecting fangs the crushing and ripping plant (2),It has a first rotor with projecting fangs and a second rotor with projecting fangs, wherein the rotors are rotatably driven in opposite directions and arranged side by side so that their fangs mesh with each other in a rotary drive. the amount of gas generated from the respective ingredient, ie a particular plant variety in a particular state, for example fresh, dried or ensiled, by fermentation over the residence time in the fermenter.Device according to one of the two preceding claims, characterized in that, to increase the throughput, at least two pulverizers (10, 10 ') or homogenizers (11) are arranged in parallel downstream of the coarse shredder (2; 9). Of the two return options via the lines 12 and 13 may be provided in simplified embodiments, only one, where appropriate, such a return possibility can also be omitted entirely. More preferably, at least two comminution stages in the manner of the described comminution stage are arranged radially one behind the other and also at least two such comminution stages axially one behind the other, so that the suspension conveyed by the homogenizer is conveyed through at least two or three comminution stages. The coarse shredder 2 comprises two screw conveyors, which are arranged in the vicinity of the bottom 1a of the container 1 and are rotated in opposite directions.The device comprises a controller SPS, which controls and regulates the treatment of the biomass via the control means as actuators, in particular the control means Y5 and 31-34. The shear ring 51 consists of shear blades 56, which protrude axially from a support 55 of the rotor 50. The walls may, for example, be coated on their inside with a sliding material, preferably a plastic. The mixing device 9 is also a conveyor for the promotion of biomass in the direction of the mixing tank 4.5 m, and a height of preferably at most 5 m, preferably at most 4 m. The biomass comminuted by the ultrasonic comminutor 22 is fed into the conduit 15 downstream of the homogenizer 11 between the control means Y5 and the outlet A. The coarse shredder is in preferred embodiments, an upstream shredder in the flow of solids.Method according to one of the preceding claims, in which the solids are comminuted by means of the first comminuting device (2, 10; 2, 9, 10) to a maximum extent of a maximum of 5 cm.Suspension is fed from the mixing vessel 4 from above the sump via a line 8 to a pulverizer 10. In the sense of the smallest possible angle of inclination β, both side walls 1b facing one another are inclined relative to the vertical axis Z.The control means Y5 are designed so that they can divide the incoming stream independently of each other in each case in a ratio which is automatically predetermined by a controller and adapted to produce an optimum biomass at the outlet A, in partial streams. This fraction is stored in the reservoir 1 and passes through a discharge device 2 with two screws in the mixing device 9. The solids are drawn by the counter-rotating screw conveyors in the gap between the screw conveyors, supported by gravity, thereby broken and torn and axially conveyed according to the mobility of the screw conveyors. The crushed solids are introduced into an upper area of the mixing tank 4. The second plane is rotated by α / 2 = 36 °, as in the arrangement of FIG. Here, too, the continuous repetition of the arrangement of the sound elements up to the level six applies.In addition to the inlets E1 and E2 for the different fractions of the biomass, the container platform P also has a water connection 25. This also facilitates subsequent retrofitting or upgrading of the device.In the mixing container 4, the different fractions are adjusted to a predetermined viscosity. For this purpose, the respective control means via control valves 28 and preferably check valves 27 are individually flushed. Since the mass flow of the supply line 6 for the homogenizer 11 is generally too large, the flow of the line 8 before the homogenizer 11 and divided a partial flow, for example, half, to the homogenizer 11 and the other partial flow via the control means Y5 in the mixing vessel 4th be guided. is. If necessary, the suspension is returned prior to reintroduction over the comminutor 10 or the homogenizer 11, to subject the solid fractions again comminution or the recirculated stream or a part of the liquid-solid mixture formed therefrom in the form of a fine dispersion again to initiate the container 4. If the degree of comminution is sufficient, the mixture is bypassed by the comminutor 10 via a shut-off control means 32, in the exemplary embodiment as wella shut-off valve, led to the mixing device 9 in order to save electrical drive energy for the crusher 10. or" and the meaning of "both as well", as far as from the respective context does not necessarily result in something else. As the suspension passes through the chambers of the shearing plant, a successively finer comminution of the solid constituents takes place down to a particle size of micrometers and nanometers. The control means Y5 are multi-way valves, in the exemplary embodiment three-way valves. In addition, to rupture the solids, the cutting teeth are preferably shaped to entangle with solids. In the feed line 6, a conveyor 7 in the form of a pump, for example a progressing cavity pump, arranged to promote the manure, which may be mixed with other a fermentation feedable liquid fractions in the mixing container 4.The first or the second comminution device comprises in preferred embodiments a fine comminutor, which comminutes the organic solids dry or preferably in suspension to a maximum extent of a maximum of 5 cm, more preferably a maximum of 2 cm. In principle, however, you could also be inclined to the axis of rotation, as long as they have only a directional component pointing transversely to the circumferential direction. The further fine grinder 10 'is provided only in expansion stages of the device.Organic solids and manure may be mixed together upstream of the first crushing device and thus upstream of the coarse shredder. Sewage sludge can also be added. 11. The return line 19 branches into two line branches, which lead upstream of the mixing device 9 in the supply line 6.Fig. the biomass is conveyed via the homogenizer 11 and the ultrasonic crusher 22 or bypassing the crusher 22 to the outlet A.In principle, the suspension can be introduced into the gap in the axial direction, but more preferably it flows through one of the shear rings into the gap and into oneFurther development by the other of the two Scherkränze again from the gap. The outlet is arranged vertically above an inlet of the mixing device 9, so that the dry biomassby means of the discharge device 2 through the outlet of the storage container 1 and then simply by gravity of the mixing device 9 can be fed. They interlock like two combs. The inclination is everywhere in the tapered height portion of the container 1 so small that the solids can form any significant bridges and the coarse shredder can always get the solids.In the mixing vessel 4, the liquid manure and the already pre-shredded organic solids are mixed. The device is part of an expansion stage of the device, but preferably also in the container platform P of the basic version place, so that the basic version can be easily retrofitted with this device. In a connecting line between the comminutor and the homogenizer and in the return line may be provided in each case a control valve or in the region of the diversion a multi-way control valve to selectively guide the treated in the comminutor suspension either to the homogenizer or back.FIG. By subjecting the solids to at least two comminution operations and increasing the degree of comminution from operation to operation, higher levels of comminution can be achieved than heretofore. The shearing chains 61 to 63 are immovably connected to the housing 60. In addition, the sequence can also be changed, as indicated in the right-hand cross section of FIG. The series connection can be such that the plurality of comminution stages are arranged with respect to the axis of rotation either only radially or only axially one behind the other. a part of the outer walls and the ceiling at the same time form part of the wall and the ceiling of the storage container 1.If the biomass downstream of the crusher 10 is already fine enough, it is guided via the upstream of the mixing device 9 control means Y5 to the homogenizer 11, optionally also only a partial stream of this biomass, and there finely dispersed. Through the inlet E2, manure, which may be mixed with one or more other liquid fraction (s), for example with digestate, from the pre-pit 5 through the feed line 6 be performed in the comminutor 10. If the biomass contains cellulose-containing fiber constituents to a significant extent, the homogenizer 11 is preferably switched on, ie. Each of the cutter shafts 44 and 45 has axially adjacent to each other a plurality of cutting blades with projecting cutting teeth. The device preferably operates separately from the other components of the device already explained, but in principle could also be integrated in a circuit for the treatment of the less critical biomass, if such a circuit is present. The supply line 6 is shut off by means of a control means Y1, in the embodiment, a shut-off valve which is disposed between the inlet E2 for the manure and the crusher 10. It is connected via the outlet A to the fermenter of a biogas plant or connectable. In this way, a crushing and tearing tool is created in combination with a conveyor. The feed comprises a feed line 6 with an inlet E2 for the introduction of the manure, which is arranged at its upstream end. The fine comminution contributes to the fact that the biomass in the fermenter can be degraded faster and more intensely microbially.Apparatus according to claim 17, characterized in that the first and the second shearing ring (51, 61) axially in front of the third and the fourth shearing ring (52, 62) are arranged and the biomass is successively conveyed through the gaps, so that they at a Rotary drive of the first and third Scherkranzes (51, 52) in the columns by means of each shearing shear edges (57) and Schergegenkanten (67) is comminuted. As long as the viscosity of the suspension is greater than a predetermined viscosity value, water is supplied to the mixing container 4 via the control means 33. The detected deviations from an average current value represent deviations of the viscosity from a desired mean value to which the mixture present at the location of the detection, preferably the fine dispersion at the outlet A, is to be adjusted. The feed tank 1 can be filled from above through an inlet E1 with the solids, which is to be indicated in Figure 1 by the symbolized conveyor. The features disclosed in the exemplary embodiments each form, individually and in any combination, the subjects of the claims and the embodiments described above. Due to the fine dispersion of the solids, the rate of fermentation in the fermenter is increased and the required residence time is reduced. 1a device of a first embodiment,Fig. He may also be designed so that he also crushes them. The feed line 6 is connected via the inlet E2 formed as a connection to a pre-pit 5 filled with liquid manure.Device according to one of the three preceding claims, characterized by at least one of the following features:- the coarse shredder (2, 9) is designed for a comminution of the solids to a maximum extent of a maximum of 30 cm, preferably a maximum of 20 cm,- The fine grinder (10) is designed for a reduction of the solids to a maximum extent of a maximum of 5 cm, preferably a maximum of 2 cm,- The homogenizer (11) is designed for a crushing of the solids to a maximum extent of not more than 2 mm, preferably at most 1 mm. The inclination angle β is constant in the exemplary embodiment, but may vary in other embodiments over the height of the storage container 1, but preferably only in said angular range. The residence time of the fermenter in the fermenter is long. In such embodiments, the container may form a truncated cone in cross section in the lower region. The shut-off valves Y3 and Y4 may each be further developed to a metering valve or a multi-way valve.Apparatus for the treatment of slurry and organic solids for fermentation, the apparatus comprising:a) a feed (E1, 1) for the solids,b) a feed (E2, 6) for the manure,c) a mixing device (4, 9) for mixing the solids and the liquid manure,d) a first comminuting device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10) for the solids present in a dry mixture or in suspension with the manuree) and a second crushing device (10, 11, 11) arranged downstream of the first crushing device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10) and the mixing device (4, 9) for being in suspension with the Manure present solids,f) wherein the second comminuting means (10, 11; 11) is designed for a finer comminution of the solids pre-shredded by means of the first comminution means (2; 2, 10; 2, 9; 2, 9, 10). The blades 56 and 66 protrude from their respective carrier 55 or 65 toward each otherCarrier 65 or 55 too. The flow path through the housing 60 is shown in FIG. The return of a liquid-solid mixture with already comminuted solids increases the flexibility with regard to adjusting the viscosity of the suspension or dispersion.The diagram of Figure 12 shows ways of modifying the device of both embodiments. The comminution devices are matched to one another in such a way that the solids usually produced in agricultural production are at least comminuted by means of the first comminution device, ie to a maximum particle size that they are finely comminuted finer in suspension by means of the second comminution device and the second Crushing device can not clog or damage. The arrangement of the containers 1 and 4, which occupy a large part of the volume of the container platform P, contributes to the efficient use of the available space. The distance in the circumferential direction is at a Scherkranz and the distancein the radial direction between two shear rings of the first shear stage in the flow direction, that is, the input stage of the homogenizer measured. It may contain vegetable or animal waste products, including leftovers or slaughterhouse waste. The screw conveyors can each have a single passage, preferably with several revolving turns, axially through one another, so that the organic solids are transported along the cooperating conveying screws only in one direction. Tilt angles of 20 ° or less are preferred. In the circumferential direction around the center C, the sequence 24a-24b-24c-24b-24c results for the first level. The controller SPS ensures that the mixture contained in the mixing container 4 at least does not substantially under-set or exceed a predetermined viscosity.If both the fine comminutor and the homogenizer are provided, it is advantageous if the homogenizer is arranged downstream of the fine comminutor.r. Below the discharge device 2, an outlet of the storage container 1 is formed, conveniently simply as an opening. Water can also be passed to the homogenizer 11 via a control means 34 and an upstream check valve. As indicated, an agitator can be arranged in the mixing vessel 4 in order to be able to counteract sedimentation of the solids. When bypassing the homogenizer 11, the biomass is passed via the second branch at 72 either bypassing the crusher 22 or for ultrasonic treatment via the formed at 74 fourth branch, the ultrasonic grinder 22 and the outlet A to the fermenter. The solids treated by the homogenizer have a higher degree of comminution than the solids treated by the comminutor. The dashed line surrounds the components installed in the container platform P. In a preferred first variant, manure, as obtained in agricultural enterprises, introduced directly into the mixing vessel. The cuboid is between 2 and 2. From there, the biomass is led to outlet A. The guided via the line 8 from the mixing vessel 4 suspension is supplied via a branching line 8 'to the further Feinzerkleinerer 10'.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a water connection (25) for the supply of water, preferably in a mixing vessel (4) or homogenizer (11), or for a purging of components (Yi, 26, 31-34) , preferably control means, of the device is arranged, preferably on the platform (P) according to claim 26. It is best if the performance of the last conveyor before the fermenter is detected. The container platform P has the shape of an elongated cuboid. The knife shafts 44 and 45 are rotationally driven by a motor 47 via the gear 46 in opposite directions. In principle, however, the second shearing ring may additionally be rotationally driven relative to the housing, preferably in opposite directions to the first shearing ring. In the perspective view, the augers promote the pre-shredded solids to the crusher 10. If components, in particular control means, of the device should be clogged, the control means Y1 between the pre-pit 5 and the crusher 10 is closed and pumped instead of the liquid from the pre-pit 5, the rinsing liquid through the system, more specifically through the clogged or the components. In a simplification, however, one or more of these control means can be designed so that only one output of the respective control means is open and flow is only possible through this output. The platform P is shown in dashed line.FIG. More preferably, it has at least one combined crushing and breaking operation, which performs both types of crushing together in a crushing operation. This also includes the case where both the first and second crushers include multiple shredders. The biomass dispersed by means of the homogenizer advantageously has a cream-like consistency, i. The fine grinders 10 and 10 'are connected in parallel. The Scherkränze 51 to 53 are connected torsionally rigid with a rotatable about the rotation axis R central shaft 54. The first shearing ring has circumferentially spaced shearing edges which are transverse to the circumferential direction of the shearing ring. The mixing or suspension of these solids can take place downstream of the fine comminutor, if the fine comminutor is still followed by a homogenizer as Feinstzerkleinerer.In the line 8 leading from the mixing container 4 to the fine crusher 10, a further conveying device 7 in the form of a pump, for example an eccentric screw pump, is arranged, which generates a delivery pressure for the fine comminutor 10 and in the exemplary embodiment also for the homogenizer 11. The storage tank should be so large that a filling corresponds at least to the daily requirement of a connected or connected fermenter.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in thatthe second shredding device (10, 11, 11) comprises a homogenizer (11) having a first shearing ring (51) and a second shearing ring (61), the first shearing ring (51) being mounted around a first shearing ring (62) relative to the second shearing ring (62) Rotation axis (R) is rotatably drivable and wherein preferably one of the Scherkränze surrounds the other,- The first shearing ring (51) about the rotation axis (R) arranged transversely to a circumferential direction of the first Scherkranzes (51) facing shear edge (57) and the second shearing ring (61) about the rotation axis (R) arranged, transversely to the circumferential direction facing Schergegenkanten (67)- And the suspension in a between the Scherkränzen (51, 61) about the rotation axis (R) extending gap is conveyed, so that they in a rotary drive of the first Scherkranzes (51) by means of shearing shear and Schergegenkanten with each other (57, 67) is crushed.The feed tank 1 may be associated with an expansion tank 17 can be promoted from the organic solids by means of a conveyor 18, 19 in the storage tank 1. The sound generators 24a, 24b and 24c are positioned within the respective group at an angle α of 72 ° about a center C of the respective pipe cross-section in or on the pipe wall offset from one another.Apparatus for breaking up biological material in dispersion comprises tank, around which ultrasound generators are mounted which are focused on its centerCited By (2)* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third partyPublication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleDE102011012285B4(en)*2011-05-052016-09-15Cebrail BeyazHybrid fermentationEP3279309A1(en)*2016-08-032018-02-07Three ES S. The brackets 55 project outwardly from the shaft 54 and are axially spaced apart. By means of a frequency control by means of a random generator of the oscillating elements, no escape flow can build up for individual particles of the biomass which would allow the particles to escape between the impinging cavitation bubbles. The upwardly open inlet E1 of the storage container 1 can be closed by means of a closure element, for example a flap or a lid, as in the first embodiment. The platform P is shown transparent, so that the recorded components and their arrangement can be seen. If one of the comminution device has several shredders, the shredders of the respective shredding device can be arranged in parallel or in series in the stream of solids to be comminuted or mixed in parallel and in series, which, as stated, also includes an arrangement in which at least two shredders run in parallel and at least two shredders serially are arranged. In addition to or instead of the mixing device 9, the discharge device 2 can also form a coarse shredder.Further advantageous features of the invention are also described in the subclaims and their combinations.Device according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a liquid container (4) for the suspension, wherein at least one of the following features is fulfilled:- manure can be routed via the feed (E2, 6) directly into the liquid container (4),the liquid container (4) forms the mixing device,the liquid container (4) is arranged downstream of a coarse shredder (2, 9) of the first shredding device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10),the liquid container (4) is arranged upstream of the second shredding device (10, 11, 11),downstream of a fine comminutor (10; 11) of the first comminution device or of the second comminution device, at least one substream of the suspension with the finely comminuted solid particles is introduced via a return line (12; 13), which preferably branches off from a further line (15) Liquid container (4) feasible. In the view of Figure 6, the extendable cutting unit with the cutter shafts 44 and 45 and a gear 46 for the rotary drive ready for assembly in the housing 40 is shown.Device according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a crusher (22), preferably ultrasonic crusher, for biomass containing animal fats, wherein the animal fats containing biomass via this crusher (22), preferably bypassing a mixing container (4) to the outlet (A ) is feasible. The cutting teeth of each group are arranged distributed on at least substantially the same axial height in the circumferential direction spaced from each other about the axis of rotation of the respective blade shaft.In order to be able to treat biomass containing a significant amount of animal fats or residues of antibiotics, but not having to mix with the other fractions, in the container platform P is a device for the treatment of the animal fats or antibiotics containing biomass separately from arranged in the leading and out of the mixing vessel 4 line system. At the forward of the direction of rotation of the rotor 50 side of each of the shearing blades 56 is one of said shearing edges 57 and formed on each of the shearing blades 66 one of said shear opposite edges 67. In principle, it suffices if a reduction in the gap width or an increase in the number of shear or shear edges occurs only once between two successive stages Stages takes place. The knife shafts are preferably each driven at such a peripheral speed that the cutting teeth of one blade shaft in the engagement region have a greater peripheral speed than the cutting teeth of the other blade shaft.According to the invention, a dispersion is produced from liquid manure and organic solids, in which the solids are evenly distributed only as small and smallest particles. The rotational speed, which have the two shear rings relative to each other, is advantageously so large that the solids are crushed beyond the shearing action also by cavitation.If the suspension at the outlet of the fine crusher only has solid particles with a maximum size, which ensures a substantial approximation of said characteristics m (t) of the different ingredients of this biomass, can be dispensed with the homogenizer. Show it:Fig. Between the knife shafts 44 and 45 remains a gap through which the suspension is conveyed and comminuted in the meshing engagement of the knife shafts 44 and 45. The water is fed via nozzles 35, which are arranged in the mixing container 4 and can serve as a cleaning nozzle in a double function in order to clean the mixing container 4 automatically. Of particular advantage are the pressure pulsations associated with each shearing operation. The Scherkränze belonging to the same group, ie the Scherkränze 61 of the first group, the Scherkränze 62 of the second group and the Scherkränze 63 of the third group, each surrounded each other at a radial distanceconcentric, while the shear rings 61 to 63 are axially spaced apart from group to group. However, the viscosity is less expensive and therefore more preferably indirectly determined from the delivery rate of one or more of the conveying devices of the device, for example one or more of the pumps 7 or a conveyor device arranged closer to the fermenter in the flow of the biomass, which is preferably arranged on the platform container P. A further return line 13 branches off downstream of the homogenizer 11 from the output line 15 and also leads back into the mixing vessel 4.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the first comminution device (2; 2, 10; 2, 9; 2, 9, 10) has a coarse shredder (2; 9)for coarse and one of the crushers comprises a pulverizer (10) arranged downstream of the coarse crusher (2; 9) for finer size reduction of the solids. 7a homogenizer,Fig. The knife shafts 44 and 45 engage with each other, ie in the gaps between the cutting blades of a blade shaft, the cutting blades of each other engage.More preferably, more than two of these components are disposed on the platform, and more preferably all of the named components are disposed on the platform. The slope of the vessel wall or walls should be no greater than 30 ° to the vertical to prevent the solids from settling against the vessel wall. Moreover, a high-quality fertilizer can be produced with the fermentation manure, which is produced by cofermentation of fresh manure or solid manure with the other starting materials of the dispersion according to the invention. Preferably, they are comminuted to the extent that they have a maximum extent, based on all spatial dimensions, of a maximum of 2 mm and more preferably of at most 1 mm.FIG.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the homogenizer (11) comprises a fourth shearing ring (61) arranged around the rotation axis (R), pointing transversely to the circumferential direction Schergegenkanten (67),wherein the third and the fourth shearing ring preferably surround one another, and that the suspension of the gap formed between the first and the second shearing ring in a between the third and the fourth shearing ring about the rotation axis (R) extending further gap is conveyed, so that they in a rotary drive of the first and preferably the third shearing wreath (51) also by means of shearing shear and Schergegenkanten with each other (57, 67) of the third and the fourth shearing ring is comminuted.Method according to one of the preceding claims, in which the solids are comminuted in a solid mixture by means of a coarse shredder (2; 9) of the first shredding device (2; 2, 10; 2, 9; 2, 9, 10) after comminution in the slurry and finely comminuted in suspension by means of a pulverizer (10; 11) of the first crushing device (2, 10; 2, 9, 10) or the second crushing device (10, 11; 11) arranged downstream of the coarse shredder (2; ,Method according to one of the preceding claims, in whichthe solids by means of a coarse shredder (2, 9) of the first crushing device,- By means of a downstream of the coarse shredder (2, 9) arranged fine crusher (10) and- By means of a downstream of the fine grinder (10) arranged homogenizer (11) of the second crushing device (11) comminuted- And the homogenizer (11), preferably already the fine crusher (10) are fed in suspension with the manure. The homogenizer is downstream of the fine grinder in preferred embodiments, so that the already comminuted in the fine grinders solids are comminuted finer in the homogenizer. 6the fine grinder in a perspective viewFig.In the flow diagram of FIG. crushed very finely, and at the same time homogeneously dispersed during comminution in the liquid fraction of the suspension, so that a dispersion of cream-like consistency leaves the homogenizer 11 at its outlet. With the homogenizer, in particular, the comminution, which is problematic in conventional processing plants, of cellulosic fiber material to maximum lengths from the lower millimeter range down to the submillimeter range succeeds. In the flow section 43, two knife shafts 44 and 45 are arranged outside each other transversely to the direction of flow of the biomass.Device according to one of the two preceding claims, characterized in that the platform (P) forms a container, which is preferably accessible, and that at least one of the components is arranged in the container. Further, the biomass can be performed after crushing by means of the crusher 10, bypassing the homogenizer 11 to the outlet A. The homogenizer 11 has a housing 60 with an inlet 68 (filler neck) for the biomass to be dispersed and a dispersed biomass outlet 69.Each of the Scherkränze 51 to 53 has a plurality of shearing blades, each forming a shearing edge.The first Scherkranz forms a rotor. The augers are occupied at its outer periphery with projecting fangs, as indicated in the view. The apparatus comprises a storage container 1 for organic solids, preferably for receiving a dry mixture of organic solids from agricultural or forestry production. Through the water connection 25, water can be fed for dilution into the stream of biomass or for flushing contaminated components. In such embodiments, at least one of the shear rings, preferably both shear rings, are radially permeable to the axis of rotation for the suspension. Alternatively, the dispersion can be generated centrally and transported in tank vehicles to decentralized fermenters.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that an inlet (E1, E2) for the liquid manure or the organic solids or a partial fraction of the organic solids, an outlet (A) for the means of at least one of the comminuting meanstreated suspension and at least two of the following componentsa crusher of the first crusher (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10),a crusher of the second crusher (10, 11, 11),an ultrasonic crusher (22), which may belong to the first or second crusher as an additional crusher,the mixing device (4, 9),a pump (7) for conveying the suspension,- A storage container (1) for receiving the organic solids or a fraction of the organic solidsare arranged on a common platform (P), which is transportable with the components arranged thereon as a unit on the road or rail. Optionally, another conveyor between the fine grinder 10 and the homogenizer 11 or downstream of theHomogenizer 11 arranged to produce a required for these two shredder discharge pressure.If a fine comminutor and additionally a homogenizer are provided for comminution and dispersion, a return line preferably branches off between the comminutor and the homogenizer, through which suspension treated in the comminutor is traceable, preferably into the mixing container. The three of the driving frequency after different vibrating elements 24a, 24b and 24c are positioned on each of the planes, with two of the three vibrating elements repeating on one plane. Advantageously, a homogenizer can be used, as it is already used in the production of pastes and creams in the pharmaceutical industry. Downstream of the collecting container 20, a crusher 22 is arranged for the comminution of the fed from the reservoir 20 biomass. The coarse shredder, which is preferably a combined crushing and tearing tool, and more preferably a breaking and tearing tool also formed as a conveyor at the same time, may advantageously be arranged in a lower region of the feed container. In principle, however, the coarse shredder may also be arranged in a wet part of the device and accordingly comminute the suspended solids in the slurry.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the second shredding device (10, 11, 11) has a homogenizer (11) arranged downstream of the fine shredder (10) for a further finer shredding of the solids.The first or second crusher may comprise a single or multiple crushers. In the supply line 6, a pump 7 and a control means Y5 are arranged between the crusher 10 and the mixing device 9.The method of claim 1, having at least one of the following features:the first crushing device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10) breaks up voluminous and tears fibrous solids, preferably in a dry mixture,at least one of the shredders cuts and tears and preferably also crushes the solids, preferably in suspension,- The second crushing device (11) comminutes the solids in suspension by means of at least one of shearing and cavitation.Figure 4 shows the storage container 1 in a perspective view, a view and a section with the arranged in the lower region of the container 1 coarse shredder 2 of the first embodiment. Such an arrangement is the subject ofEuropean Patent Application No.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by the use for the treatment of biomass for a fermenter of a biogas plant for the production of methane-containing biogas from agricultural or forestry products or organic waste material. If the biomass reaches the homogenizer 11, it is, after further comminution and fine dispersion in the homogenizer 11 via a third branch with a third control means 73, for example again a three-way valve to the outlet A or via a fourth control means 74, which may also be a three-way valve by way of example , promoted to the ultrasonic crusher 22 and there subjected to the described ultrasound crushing. The return line 19 comprises a leading from the mixing tank 4 riser.Plant for treating biomassSimilar DocumentsPublicationPublication DateTitleCN205236110U(en)2016-05-18High -efficient rubbing crusher is used in production of pharmaceuticals processingKR100954222B1(en)2010-04-21Waste processing systemJP3621390B2(en)2005-02-16crushing machineCN100421896C(en)2008-10-01Apparatus for processing thermoplastic synthetic plastic materialUS4310124A(en)1982-01-12Mixer for viscous materials, for example for filter cake, pulp or the likeKR101316410B1(en)2013-10-08Transfer Unit having Rotating Screw and Garbage disposing ApparatusCA1203231A(en)1986-04-15Apparatus for treating liquid and semi-solid organicwaste materialsUS3027102A(en)1962-03-27Apparatus for mixing and comminutingJP5893039B2(en)2016-03-23Method for processing waste, equipment for processing waste, and processed waste productEP1276597B1(en)2004-09-08Device and method for processing thermoplastic synthetic materialJP2010516454A(en)2010-05-20Organic substance drying equipmentUS7959736B2(en)2011-06-14Biomass processorUS10160693B2(en)2018-12-25Processing apparatus for quick resource recovery of kitchen garbageUS20100078512A1(en)2010-04-01Apparatus for processing utility waste with bioderadable organic material contentEP0835608A1(en)1998-04-15Automatic apparatus for cutting and emulsificationCN103874567A(en)2014-06-18Apparatus for processing plastic materialEP1804974B1(en)2018-08-08Method and apparatus for treating materials or mixtures of materialUS5346142A(en)1994-09-13Continuous shredding apparatus for medical waste material and method for use thereofDE4317974A1(en)1994-01-05Paper shredder for commercial recycling - has shaft with toothed discs to grind paper, press arms at opposite sidewalls of shredder chamber, etc. The pumps 7 are preferably rotary lobe pumps. Meant are the characteristics m (t), d.The mixing container 4 is not an integrated, but a built-in container with a round, around the vertical axis Z cylindrical circumferential side wall. If the biomass contains animal fats to any appreciable extent, the crusher 22 is preferably switched on, i.The container platform P also has a further outlet connection, via which the sump of the mixing container 4 can be emptied. 12a flow chart of a crushing and dispersion in several stages. The sound generators 24a form a first group, the sound generator 24b a second and the sound generator 24c a third group, etc. The shearing rings 51 and 61 of the first two groups are concentric with each other, with one of the shearing rings 61 following in the radial direction on one of the shearing rings 51, so that an alternating sequence of rotor shearing rings 51 and stator shearing rings 61 is obtained in the radial direction. For the crusher 10, optionally the mixing device 9, the homogenizer 11, the pumps 7 and the line system with the control means remains enough space between the containers 1 and 4 and under the feed tank 1. Accordingly, a fraction containing animal fats can be passed via the comminutor 10 and optionally the homogenizer 11 to the comminutor 22. A mixing vessel is particularly advantageous if suspension is to be guided not only in the direction of an outlet of the device, but also for the purpose of adjusting the viscosity. The mixing device may also be a conveyor or even a crusher. In the parallel line branches, in the line 8 and the line 8 ', in each case a shut-off valve Y3 and Y4 is arranged. Each of the cutter shafts has groups of cutting teeth spaced axially from one another along the respective axis of rotation. More preferably, the gap width is selected so that its maximum extent is at most 2 or 3 cm. By means of the homogenizer, the solids are comminuted even finer, i.A viscometer 30 measures the viscosity of the mixture returned from the mixing vessel 4. The solids are conveyed through a zigzag gap remaining between the cutter shafts and cut thereby. 07102358. These struts carry a bottom 1a of the storage container 1, so that the storage container 1 tapers in the direction of its outlet downwards.r. Between each adjacent cutting blades remains in each case an axial distance. The homogenizer 11 and the ultrasonic comminutor 22 may change position in a variation of the flowchart. In the exemplary embodiment, all components of the claimed device are arranged in the platform container P.The device is arranged on a platform P. Furthermore, struts of the skeleton extend inclined to the vertical axis Z inclined inwards. The crusher 10 has a housing 40 with an inlet 41 andan outlet 42, between which the housing 40 forms a flow portion 43 of the conduit 8 of the first or the supply conduit 6 of the second embodiment. The first plane with the five oscillating elements 24a only once has a vibrating element with a hatched drawing.The device or only certain components of the device can advantageously be arranged together on a platform which can be transported as a unit on the road or rail and has corresponding dimensions. Preferably, the homogenizer is set up to reduce the biomass fed to it so far that the homogenizer leaves a homogeneous, flowable biomass with largest particles of at most 5 mm, preferably at most 2 mm.Device according to one of the five preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the shear rings between radially circumferentially adjacent shearing edges or Schergegenkanten is radially permeable to promote the biomass in the radial direction in the gap formed by the at least one of the Scherkränze. The screw conveyors are designed so that voluminous solids are broken during production. Preferably, the augers are occupied with fangs, which protrude away from the respective axis of rotation to the outside and pull the solids in opposite rotational drive in a gap formed between the augers. The organic solids can be supplied in a heterogeneous mixture, for example a mixture of energy crops, hay, grass and wastes from agricultural production, but also in the form of, for example, only one plant species. H.The device has a feed for manure. The solid components are cut, torn and crushed as they pass through the gap. The screws of the discharge device 2 are arranged lying in a conical lower part of the storage container 1.Preferably, the storage container tapers in the direction of the coarse shredder or the pure conveyor funnel-shaped, preferably with straight, at an acute angle facing each other container walls. The mixing container 4 is connected via a line 14 and the further outlet connection for the sump emptying to the pre-pit 5 or connected to this.The first crushing device or, if it comprises a plurality of shredders, only a single or selected plurality of shredders of the first crushing device may or may advantageously also form a conveyor for the solids. In order to produce cavitation to a significant extent, the homogenizer is rotationally driven at such a speed that radially adjacent shear rings have a circumferential relative velocity of at least 30 m / s, preferably at least 50 m / s and more preferably at least 60 m / s.Serially successively arranged shredders differ in preferred embodiments not only in terms of the degree of comminution at the outlet of the respective crusher, but also the type and according to the mode of action, as the respective shredder acts on the organic solids.The organic solids can be supplied to the first comminution device in a dry mixture or already in suspension with the manure.The use of organic raw materials by fermentation is becoming more important. The crusher 22 is an ultrasonic crusher. 1 may or may for example be arranged between the homogenizer 11 and the control means 73.The equipment of the container platform P with the additional device for processing the animal fats or biomass containing antibiotics is not included in a basic version of the device. More preferably, however, the pre-shredded by the coarse shredder solids are introduced upstream of the fine grinder into the manure and already fed to the fine crusher in suspension. The ultrasonic crusher 22 comprises a tube 23 and ultrasonic generators 24a, 24b and 24c arranged in or on the tube wall.Method according to one of the preceding claims, in which the solids of the suspension are comminuted by means of the second comminution device (10, 11; 11) to a maximum extent of not more than 2 mm, preferably not more than 1 mm, and are preferably uniformly dispersed during comminution.The homogenizer preferably comprises at least one comminution stage comprising a first shearing ring, a second shearing ring and a rotary drive for the first shearing ring. The treated in the homogenizer 11 biomass can be selectively passed through this control means Y5 either through a return line 13 in the mixing vessel 4 or in a continuative part of the line 15 to the outlet A of the device. The shear edges and shear edges are parallel to the axis of rotation R. The oscillating elements 24a-c are positioned axially aligned in or on the pipe wall from group to group. They could have an inclination to the rotation axis R, but in any case should have a directional component parallel to the axis of rotation R. However, if the first crushing device has several shredders of different types, the solids are preferably fed to the crushers separately from their respective shredders and comminuted with the shredding operation adapted to the specific species. The gas outlet G is not shown. 10 shows a modified arrangement of sound generators 24a-c. The organic solids are fed to the second crushing device in suspension with slurry and comminuted in suspension in the second crushing device and homogeneously distributed. Preferably, however, the coarse shredder is preferably supplied with organic solids, at least essentially in the dry state, and only the solids shredded by means of the coarse shredder are mixed with the slurry. 9 shows the ultrasonic comminutor 22, in the exemplary embodiment an ultrasonic pipe oscillator, in a longitudinal section and three cross sections. The shear rings 51 are arranged on a first carrier 55, the shear rings 52 on a second carrier 55 and the shear rings 53 on a third carrier 55.Apparatus for breaking up biological material in dispersion comprises tank, around which ultrasound generators are mounted which are focused on its center20072007-05-25EPEP20070108967patent/EP1884564A1/ennot_activeWithdrawnPatent Citations (6)* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third partyPublication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleDE4235528A1(en)*1992-10-211994-04-28Alfred Schmid Ag PlastikwerkDispensing and mixing unit for two component mixts.Opposing side walls 1b of the original container 1 are inclined to the vertical axis Z with a constant inclination angle β. Since the different biofractions to achieve the same degree of degradation require different fermentation times, an optimal residence time in the fermenter can only be chosen as a compromise between as complete as possible and highest possible throughput or the fractions would have to be fermented separately. Optionally, only one conveying device for the solids is arranged in the lower region of the storage container. The partial flows treated in the fine crushers 10 and 10 'connected in parallel are still brought together upstream of the homogenizer 11, in the exemplary embodiment also upstream of the branching return line 12. The manure inlet E2, the dispersion outlet A and the gas outlet G, as well as a sump emptying outlet, are ports on one or different outer walls of the container platform P.The variations of the arrangements of the sound elements should produce a maximum of cavitation bubbles. Preferably, the speed is so great that the cavitation at the comminution has an approximately equally large or advantageously even greater proportion than the shearing action. H. If the solid particles are comminuted to a maximum extent of at most 2 mm or preferably even further, the characteristics of the fermentation of a wide variety of plants, for example of fresh corn and grass, approach each other sharply. The second shearing ring also has shearing edges circumferentially spaced around the axis of rotation, forming shearing counter-edges for the shearing edges of the first shearing ring and facing transversely to the circumferential direction of the second shearing ring. Furthermore, the division into two partial streams is possible.The storage container 1 is filled as above in the first embodiment, for example, as shown by means of a forklift or other on-site transport means. In a lower region of the storage container 1, a coarse shredder 2 is arranged, which comminutes the solids and promotes crushing from the storage tank 1 via an intermediate conveyor 3 in a mixing tank 4. 3a container platform and components of the device accommodated therein;Fig. H. More preferably, the homogenizer is configured such that the largest particles at the outlet of the homogenizer have a maximum extension of at most 100 micrometers or a few hundred micrometers. - where dispensing and during devices consist of rotary lobe pumps, for use in dental workDE29511883U1(en)*1995-07-221995-10-12Boerger AloisCombination of a rotary pump with a foreign body chopperRU2111194C1(en)*1997-01-061998-05-20Государственный научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт по развитию и эксплуатации флотаProduction line for obtaining biocompost from fish-processing wastesDE20317305U1(en)*2003-11-072004-03-04Hugo Vogelsang Maschinenbau Apparatus for ripping, mixing and pumping in a single aggregate for feeding fermenters in biogas plants with biosubstratesDE10343748A1(en)*2003-08-292005-03-24BIONIK - Innovative Technik für die UmweltProcess and assembly to break down suspended organic cell residues arising from activated sludge treatment by brief acceleration through pipe constrictionDE102005030895A1(en)*2004-07-232006-03-16Eckard, Horst K. In the gap, the solids are comminuted by means of the relatively rotating shearing edges and shearing counter edges, the comminution being based, at least in part, on a shearing action of the shear and shear opposing edges moving relative to each other. The crusher is preferably an ultrasonic crusher. The knife shafts are preferably arranged on the outside axis.The two containers 1 and 4, viewed in the longitudinal direction of the container platform P, are each arranged close to the end faces of the container platform P, wherein one of the end walls simultaneously forms a side wall of the storage container 1. The dispersion of the invention can be degraded in a short time and contained in the dispersion, the nature of different biofractions can because of the alignment of Vergärungskennlinien more complete than before together in a fermenter. The first crusher may comprise, separately for breaking and rupturing, a crusher and a ripper, ie at least one separate crusher for each of these types of shredding. - where dispensing and during devices consist of rotary lobe pumps, for use in dental workDE29511883U1(en)*1995-07-221995-10-12Boerger AloisCombination of a rotary pump with a foreign body chopperRU2111194C1(en)*1997-01-061998-05-20Государственный научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт по развитию и эксплуатации флотаProduction line for obtaining biocompost from fish-processing wastesDE10343748A1(en)*2003-08-292005-03-24BIONIK - Innovative Technik für die UmweltProcess and assembly to break down suspended organic cell residues arising from activated sludge treatment by brief acceleration through pipe constrictionDE20317305U1(en)*2003-11-072004-03-04Hugo Vogelsang Maschinenbau Apparatus for ripping, mixing and pumping in a single aggregate for feeding fermenters in biogas plants with biosubstratesDE102005030895A1(en)*2004-07-232006-03-16Eckard, Horst K.The platform or, preferably, the platform container has an inlet for manure or optionally a suspension already formed outside the platform of manure and organic solids and also an outlet for the dispersion produced. It may be further formed into a mixing vessel having at least one slurry inlet, at least one organic solids inlet, and at least one liquid-solid slurry and organic solids outlet. 10, so that the sound generators of each plane are positioned "in gap" with the sound generators of the axially adjacent plane in the circumferential direction. Furthermore, at least two of the following components are arranged on the platform:the coarse shredder,the fine crusher,the homogenizer,at least one conveyor,the storage container,the mixing container,the ultrasonic shredder. 2 in selectable flow paths. If the device has the homogenizer as preferred, a return line can branch off from a line leading from the homogenizer to the outlet of the device in order to be able to recycle at least part of the dispersion produced by the homogenizer, for example into the mixing container. The by-product is manure, which can be used for fertilization. The sixth level is shown only by dashed lines. The shearing edges and shearing counter edges are distributed uniformly around the axis of rotation R in each of the shearing chains 51 to 53 and 61 to 63.The biomass is after crushing by means of the fine crusher 10 via a first branch with a first control means 71, for example a three-way valve to the homogenizer 11 or by surrounding the homogenizer 11 to a second branch with asecond control means 72, for example, also a three-way valve promoted.In the connecting line leading from the pulverizer 10 to the homogenizer 11, a multi-way control valve Y5 is arranged, in which a return line 12 branches off, which leads back into the mixing container 4. Since the entire tube oscillator is equipped with thirty sound generators and each level of which receives five sound generators, there are thus six levels with five sound generators each. This applies to all subsequent levels, ie the same hatching same driving frequency.The biomass processed according to the invention contains renewable raw materials from agricultural or forestry production.The first comminution device comprises a coarse shredder, which is preferably arranged in a dry part of the device and comminutes the solids in the dry state. An admixture in the mixing container 4 is also conceivable, although less preferred.The fine comminutor may have knife shafts which can be driven in rotation, preferably two counter-rotating rotary knife shafts, with cutting teeth circulating about the axis of rotation of the respective cutter shaft. The walls of the storage container 1 are smooth at least on the inside and have a low coefficient of friction to prevent bridging of the recorded biomass.l. It comminutes the solids present in the raw state, preferably in a raw mixture, to such an extent that the downstream next crusher can further crush them. The fine grinder canbe arranged upstream of such a mixing container.In the container P are, among othersthe storage container 1,the crushers 2, 10 and 11,the conveyors 7and the mixing container 4arranged. 11 shows yet another arrangement of sound generators 24a-c. From the feed tank 1, in addition to the fraction from the pre-pit not arranged in the container platform P, further biomass of various kinds can be filled into a pre-shredding into the mixing device 9. EP200701089672006-08-012007-05-25Preparation of liquid manure and organic solids for a fermentationWithdrawnEP1884564A1(en)Priority Applications (3)Application NumberPriority DateFiling DateTitleDE2020060118722006-08-01EP20070102358EP1884563A1(en)2006-08-012007-02-14Device for creating a suspension from biomassEP20070108967EP1884564A1(en)2006-08-012007-05-25Preparation of liquid manure and organic solids for a fermentationApplications Claiming Priority (1)Application NumberPriority DateFiling DateTitleEP20070108967 EP1884564A1(en)2006-08-012007-05-25Preparation of liquid manure and organic solids for a fermentationPublications (1)Publication NumberPublication DateEP1884564A1true EP1884564A1(en)2008-02-06FamilyID=38687471Family Applications (1)Application NumberTitlePriority DateFiling DateEP20070108967WithdrawnEP1884564A1(en)2006-08-012007-05-25Preparation of liquid manure and organic solids for a fermentationCountry Status (1)CountryLinkEP(1)EP1884564A1(en)Cited By (2)* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third partyPublication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleDE102011012285B4(en)*2011-05-052016-09-15Cebrail BeyazHybrid fermentationEP3279309A1(en)*2016-08-032018-02-07Three ES S. The solids are finely comminuted by means of the fine crusher 10 and fed to a homogenizer 11. However, one or more upstream stages are modified by increasing the spacing of shearing edges. Between the mixing device 9 and the mixing container 4, a further pump 7 and a further control means Y5 are arranged in the supply line 6. For dilution, water can be conveyed into the mixing container 4 via a control means 33 and an upstream non-return valve. The outlet A can be connected to a fermenter or a feed line for a fermenter or connected during operation of the device. Between the radially adjacent shear rings 51 and 61, a narrow gap remains in each case around the rotation axis R. Neither does the reduction in the gap width or the increase in the number of edges have to be performed at each of the comminution stages to the next one.The rotational speed of the rotor 50 is preferably so high and the radial distances between the shear blades 56 and 66 shearing together are preferably chosen to be so small that cavitation bubbles occur in the fluid of the biomass, which contribute to a fine dispersion of the biomass by the cavitation forces the solid Tear components.The device of the first embodiment, like that of the second embodiment, can be supplemented by the ultrasonic comminutor 22, so that the embodiments for comminution by means of ultrasound apply equally to the first embodiment.In the upstream control means Y5, a line 8 branches off from the supply line 6 to the homogenizer 11. The container platform P has another inlet for this fraction. Advantageous ultrasonic shredders are used in theDE 10 2005 030 895 A1and theEP 07102358. The shear edges and shear edges preferably extend parallel to one another and preferably parallel to the axis of rotation of the second shear ring.FIG. The second shearing ring forms a stator, which preferably stands still and is secured against rotation with a housing of the homogenizer. 7 shows the homogenizer 11 of both exemplary embodiments in a longitudinal section along a central longitudinal axis, which is at the same time an axis of rotation R of a shearing unit of the homogenizer 11. The sound generators of the same group are arranged in the longitudinal direction of the tube 23 at the same height, while the sound generator from group to group in the longitudinal direction of Tube 23 are offset from each other. The carriers 55 and 65 are axially offset from each other. The solids comminuted by means of the first comminution device are comminuted more finely by means of the second comminution device to the above-mentioned particle size. From the outlet, a return line 14 leads the biomass of the sump back to the pre-pit 5.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the solids feed (E1, 1) comprises a container (1) for the solids, preferably a dry mix of the solids, and at least one of the following characteristics is met:a coarse shredder (2, 9) of the first shredding device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10) is arranged in a lower region or below an outlet of the container (1),a conveyor (2) for the solids is arranged in a lower region or below an outlet of the container (1) and the container (1) tapers in the direction of the conveyor (2),- In a lower region or below an outlet of the container (1) is arranged a screw conveyor (2) for the solids with a horizontal axis of rotation,- The container (1) has an opening (E1) through which it can be filled from above with the solids. In the absence of fibrous components or animal fats, the homogenizer 11 or the crusher 22 is or is preferably bypassed and shut down. The device for the treatment of animal fat-containing biomass comprises in a preferred embodiment, a separate crusher for this fraction. The mixing container 4 also serves as a mass buffer and also as a mixing device for further fractions of the suspension formed from the liquid manure and the organic solids in the mixing container. If the homogenizer is provided as preferred in addition to the pulverizer, the particle size in that of the pulverizertreated stream of biomass by measuring in the stream directly or on the basis of, for example, required for the fine grinder drive power or upstream or downstream of the pulverizer arranged conveyor to be determined depending on the determined maximum extent of the particles in the fine grinder treated biomass optionally either through the homogenizer or past it to an outlet of the device.Hereinafter, embodiments of the invention will be explained with reference to figures. The closure element may in particular be a wall part of the container P. In a further development, the platform is a container in which the relevant components are accommodated.In the container platform P can be arranged an addition device for enzymes to the biomass at a suitable location, preferably between the homogenizer 11 and the outlet A, in metered amount to add enzymes for aftertreatment. The shear rings 61 to 63 also each have a plurality of shearing blades, each of which forms a shear edge for the shear edges of the radially inner or outer next of the shear rings 51 to 53. The inclination is chosen so that the feed tank 1 tapers downwards to the surface covered by the coarse shredder 2, as seen in plan view, so that all solids can be detected by the coarse shredder 2. The length can be larger. 4a storage container with coarse shredderFig. The first level is at a frequency of 20 kHz, the second at a frequency of 100 kHz, and the third level is driven at 40 kHz. For the comminution, it is favorable if the knife shafts 44 and 45 are driven at different peripheral speeds, ie they have a speed difference to each other.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second shredding device (10, 11, 11) comprises a homogenizer (11) and fulfills at least one of the following features:- The homogenizer (11) comprises a multi-stage shearing mechanism with first shearing rings (51, 52, 53) and second shearing rings (61, 62, 63), wherein the first shearing rings are rotatable relative to the second shearing rings about an axis of rotation (R) and each one of the first Scherkränze surrounds one of the second Scherkränze or is surrounded by one of the second Scherkränze,the homogenizer (11) is arranged closer to an outlet (A) of the apparatus than the mixing container (4) in a flow of the suspension which can be passed through a mixing tank (4) and the homogenizer (11),the dispersion with the solids comminuted by means of the homogenizer (11) can be conveyed into a mixing container (4),- The dispersion with the means of the homogenizer (11) finely comminuted solids is optional to an outlet (A) of the device or in a mixing container (4) feasible. The other four oscillating elements are tuned to the same driving frequency. Furthermore, it applies that those components of both embodiments that are provided with the same reference numerals, not only fulfill at least one same function, but also can be identical. If both shredders are present, they differ as a result of the respective treatment. It would suffice if only one single passage is formed between two adjacent shearing edges or shear edges in the respective shearing ring, but more preferably there is a passage between each two nearest shearing edges or shear edges.The possibilities of switching on and bypassing either the homogenizer 11 or the ultrasonic shredder 22, including the possibility to connect both components in series, contribute to the reduction of energy costs. 12, variation possibilities with regard to the comminution of solid constituents are shown, whereby the ultrasonic comminutor 22 is arranged downstream of either the fine comminutor 10 or the homogenizer 11 in deviation from the diagram of FIG. Here, the sound generators 24b are offset by α / 2, ie by 36 °, of the rotational angular position in relation to the sound generators 24a and 24c arranged at a distance from them axially spaced apart from the left and right.To disperse the biomass, the rotor 50 is rotated by a motor at high speed, preferably at a peripheral speed which is at least 30 m / s at the radially outermost shear ring of each axial stage.Plant for treating biomassCitations (6)* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third partyPublication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleDE4235528A1(en)*1992-10-211994-04-28Alfred Schmid Ag PlastikwerkDispensing and mixing unit for two component mixts.In a further development, the device also comprises a device for the treatment of biomass containing animal fats.The homogenizer 11, as in the first embodiment, is a dispersing apparatus known in the cosmetics industry having an electric motor and a fine cutting or shearing mechanism used for stirring pastes and ointments.Between the two shearing rings of the crushing stage remains around the axis of rotation around a narrow gap into which the suspension is introduced. They each form a soil for the biomass to be treated.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises a device (7, 30) for determining the viscosity of a stream of biomass treated by the device and a controller which, depending on the determined viscosity, a conveyor (7) or a Control means (Yi, 26, 31-34), preferably a metering or shut-off valve or multi-way valve, drives,via which liquid can be added to the suspension or dispersion, wherein the device (7, 30) for determining the viscosity or the controller (SPS) is or are preferably arranged on the platform (1) according to claim 26. In principle, however, the solids could also be passed in succession through the different shredders. The pre-pit 5 and the expansion tank 17 are not calculated to the device. It is guided in the housing 60 so that it flows through the groups of shear rings 51 and 61, 52 and 62 and 53 and 63 respectively from radially inward to outward. By carrying out multiple comminuting operations one upon the other, that is, coordinated, a solid-liquid dispersion can be produced in which, in preferred embodiments, the largest particles at the outlet of the second comminutor have a maximum extension of at most 100 microns or a few hundred microns. The shearing mechanism consists of a stationary stator in the housing 60 and a rotor 50 which is rotatably mounted in the housing 60 about the rotation axis R. The width of the nip or the number of shearing edges or shear edges may vary from stage to stage, preferably such that the nip width decreases from stage to stage in the conveying direction or the number of edges increases in the conveying direction from stage to stage, as in the case a combination of both variations. It may instead be located near the outlet below the container.l.The mixing device 9 mixes the liquid or at least flowable biomass in the supply line 6 with the biomass consisting essentially of solid components from the storage tank 1. A combined crushing and breaking unit has the advantage that fibrous and voluminous solids, for example potatoes, hay, hay bales or generally fibrous bale material can be comminuted in the mixture by means of the same crusher.EP1520845B1(en)2012-03-07Device and method for compostingUS20080035561A1(en)2008-02-14Process of treating organic waste for anaerobic digestionCN103451248B(en)2015-04-22Method and system for producing natural amino acid, fertilizer and feed by using slaughtering bloodJP4033454B2(en)2008-01-16Deodorant type foreign matter sorting machineCN103084237B(en)2015-06-24Geometric-pitch screw extrusion pulverization lifting boxWO2007065597A1(en)2007-06-14Fermentation device comprising a coupled substrate and sediment transport mechanism and method for operating the fermentation deviceLegal EventsDateCodeTitleDescription2008-02-06AXExtension of the european patent toCountries concerned:ALBAKYU. The outlet for sump emptying can be closed or opened automatically by means of a valve Y0 automatically. Between the circumferentially around the axis of rotation R adjacent shear blades 56 each leaves a clear distance, as well as between the blades 66, so that the biomass radially through one of the shear rings 51 and 61 in the next adjacent Scherkränzen 51 and 61 remaining narrow gap and from this the other of the Scherkränze 51 and 61 can flow. 5a fine grinder in one cut,Fig. The word "or" is understood here and elsewhere always in the usual logical sense of "and / or", thus includes the meaning of "either . The container platform P consists essentially of a solid skeleton of struts, to which the outer walls and the ceiling are fastened, so that an all-around enclosed cavity is obtained, in which the components of the device are arranged, which receive the biomass, lead, promote and treat. It may contain fresh biological products such as grass, feed or energy crops, or silage, hay or straw. Optionally, the rotary drive of the rotor 50 for the promotion of biomass in the homogenizer 11 is sufficient, advantageously the conveyor 7 supports the promotion by the homogenizer 11. The other shear rings 51 to 53 and 61 to 63 are similarly shaped and arranged within the respectively associated first, second and third groups so that within the mutually associated groups in each case two radially next Scherkränze 51 and 61, 52 and 62 and 53 and 63 cooperatively form a comminution stage. The dispersion is discharged via an outlet line 15 and a downstream outlet A of the device.The reference numeral 10 ', a further fine grinder is indicated, which may be formed, for example, identical to the Feinzerkleinerer 10. This fraction can be fed via the shredder 10 to a mixing device 9.FIG.Method according to one of the preceding claims, in which a coarse shredder (2; 9) of the first shredding device (2; 2, 10; 2, 9; 2, 9, 10) strands the solids to a maximum extent of not more than 30 cm, preferably not more than 20 cm cm, and a comminutor (10, 11) of the first comminution device or the second comminution device arranged downstream of the coarse shredder (2, 9) comminutes the coarsely comminuted solids to the maximum extent of a maximum of 5 mm. However, a variation of this kind between more than just two of the size reduction stages is preferred.Device according to one of the preceding claims, comprising at least one of the following features:the first crushing device (2, 2, 10) comprises a crushing and breaking unit (2) for breaking up voluminous solids, for example potatoes or beets, and rupturing fibrous solids, for example grass, hay or straw or bales of fibrous solids,at least one of the crushers comprises a cutting and ripping mechanism (10) for cutting, rupturing and preferably crushing the solids,- The second crushing device (11) comprises a shearing and dispersing (11). "Z" denotes the vertical vertical axis. The shearing ring 61 consists of shear knives 66 which protrude axially from one of the supports 65 of the housing 60 and axially overlap the shearing blades 56. Optionally, it is also external to the container platform Hoist H arranged, for example, a raised and lowered ramp for another truck, such as the illustrated forklift or a transport container for organic solids to be filled in the storage tank 1. The homogenizer comminutes the pre-shredded solids by means of cutting or cavitation, preferably by a combination of both comminution operations.An organic solids feed preferably comprises a container for receiving and temporarily storing the solids, which is also referred to below as a feed tank.Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that one of the comminution devices has a fine comminutor (10) for cutting,Rupture and preferably crushing of the solids and fulfills at least one of the following characteristics:- The Feinzerkleinerer (10) has rotatably driven knife shafts (44, 45), each with a plurality of groups of the respective shaft axis circumferentially arranged cutting teeth, the groups of each of the cutter shafts (44, 45) are axially spaced apart and the knife shafts (44, 45 ) are intermeshed so that solids conveyed through a gap between the cutter shafts are comminuted by at least one of cutting, tearing and pressing, and wherein the cutter shafts are preferably arranged on the outside axis,- The fine crusher (10) has rotatably driven knife shafts (44, 45) which are arranged side by side, so that between the knife shafts remains a slidable by the suspension, transverse to the flow direction of the suspension gap,- One of the crushing devices comprises another such fine grinder (10 ') and the fine grinders (10, 10') are connected in parallel in the flow of the suspension in order to increase the throughput. Downstream of the homogenizer 11 is another control means Y5, arranged in the embodiment another multi-way valve.4disclosed. To cool the shear, coolant is passed through the system. In both variants, in particular in the first variant, the comminutor may instead be arranged advantageously downstream of the mixing vessel and the fine comminutor be supplied with the suspension from the mixing vessel.The container platform P has a door through which one can enter the interior for repair and maintenance work and inspections and, if necessary, adjustments. 8a detail of a shear of the homogenizer,Fig. About the control valve Y5, the suspension of the fine grinder 10 can be performed either either to the homogenizer 11 or back into the mixing container 4. The stator comprises a first group of shearing rings 61, a second group of shearing rings 62 and a third group of shearing rings 63. The suspension, optionally additionally enriched with water, is supplied at the inlet 68. In order to obtain the smallest possible angle of inclination β, the storage container 1 can taper from the inlet E1 to the height of the coarse shredder 2 everywhere. The discharge device 2 of the second embodiment can be replaced by the coarse shredder 2 of the first embodiment. In the homogenizer 11, the constituents of the biomass are comminuted and mixed so far that a homogeneous liquid of cream-likeConsistency arises, which can be characterized as "corn cream". The shearing edges and shear edges are straight, but could also have a curved course. 9-11each an ultrasonic grinder with piezoceramic oscillating elements for receiving different drive frequencies andFig.It is an object of the invention to increase the profitability of fermenters, especially in the agricultural or municipal production of biogas. The door is preferably located on a longitudinal side in an area between the containers 1 and 4. The control means 71 may comprise the control means Y5 of FIG1 or the most upstream control means Y5 of FIG. For the indirect determination of the viscosity, in particular the change in the power consumption of the relevant conveyor can be detected. If the solid components of the mixture from the mixing container 4 are not sufficiently fine crushed, the mixture via a shut-off control means 31, in the embodiment, a shut-off again passed through the crusher 10. In a likewise preferred embodiment, the auger axially adjacent two Windungsgänge, preferably with several turns, one of which is left and the other right-handed, so that the augers in a rotary drive from the two axial ends of Windungsgänge to the axial center promote.The mixing device 9 can be designed such that it also promotes or comminutes beyond the mixing. 2 shows, in a process flow diagram, a device according to the invention of a second exemplary embodiment, the components of which are likewise arranged in a container platform P indicated by a dashed line. It forms a container and is referred to below as a "container platform".In the event that biogas already forms to a significant extent in the mixing vessel 4, a gas line of this biogas from the top of the mixing vessel 4 via a check valve Y8 and a gas connection G in a gas collection chamber, in or out of it out, for example with the Biogas produced in the downstream fermenter can be mixed. In Scherkränzen 52 and 62 of the two second groups and the Scherkränzen 53 and 63 of the two third groups prevail the same conditions.4, which is referred to in addition. In advantageous embodiments, the device for treating the animal fat-containing biomass further comprises a collecting container for this biomass and its own conveying and metering device, by means of which the biomass can be conveyed from the collecting container into and through the comminutor. The platform with the components arranged thereon advantageously has a width of at most 3 m, more preferably at most 2. A further advantage is that at least with the operation in which the required particle size is achieved, the solid particles are also uniformly finely divided in the manure and the starting product is a quasi-homogeneous dispersion of manure and fine solid particles. The inclination angle β is at most 30 °, more preferably at most 20 °, and is less than 20 ° in the embodiment. For the adjustment of the viscosity suspension can be withdrawn from the container 4 and returned to the container 4. The one line branch leads upstream and the other downstream of the crusher 10 in the supply line 6. The control means 33 and 34 are for example simple shut-off valves. This additional device comprises a collection container 20, ingreasy wastes, such as slaughter and kitchen waste, are collected.The solids are comminuted in several comminution operations by means of a first comminution device and a second comminution device arranged downstream of the first comminution device. 2 arranged downstream of the homogenizer 11 or the control means Y6 and Y7 of FIG. The rotor 50 has a first group of shear rings 51, a second group of shear rings 52, and a third group of shear rings 53. The dispersion produced by means of the second comminution device preferably has a cream-like consistency, that is to say it is emulsion-like. 2a device of a second embodiment,Fig. By means of the control valve Y5, the stream of the suspension conveyed by the comminutor 10 can further be split into sub-streams, of which one is led to the homogenizer 11 and the other back into the mixing container 4. In a further development of such a control device, it is also possible to set partial flows by means of the multi-way control valve or the several control valves so that a metered first partial flow can be returned to the homogenizer and a second partial flow can be returned. In the return line 13, a shut-off valve Y6 is arranged, which can also be developed to a metering valve to a part of the dispersion to the fermenter and to be able to lead the remaining part back into the mixing container 4.reference numeral1storage container1aground1bSide wall2Coarse shredder, discharge device3Conveyor4mixing tank5Mixing tank6feed7Conveyor, pump8thmanagement9mixing device10Grinders11homogenizer12Return line13Return line14Return line15outlet pipe16gas discharge17expansion tank18Conveyor19Return line20Clippings21metering22Ultrasonic crusher23pipe24ultrasonic generator25mains water supply26Control means, shut-off valve27check valve28Control means, shut-off valve29-30viscometer31Control means, shut-off valve32Control means, shut-off valve33Control means, shut-off valve34Control means, shut-off valve35jet36sight glass37vent38Attachable lamp39level sensor40casing41inlet42outlet43flow section44cutterhead45cutterhead46transmission47engine48-49-50rotor51shearing crown52shearing crown53shearing crown54wave55carrier56razor57shearing edge58-59-60casing61shearing crown62shearing crown63shearing crown64-65carrier66razor67Shear counter-edge68inlet69outlet70-71Control means, multi-way dosing valve or shut-off valve72Control means, multi-way dosing valve or shut-off valve73Control means, multi-way dosing valve or shut-off valve74Control means, multi-way dosing valve or shut-off valveAOutlet for the dispersionCCenter of the pipe cross-sectionE1inletE2inletGOutlet for gasHhoistPPlatform, container platformRaxis of rotationSPScontrolZvertical axisY0Control means, shut-off valveY1Control means, shut-off valveY2Control means, metering or shut-off valveY3Control means, metering or shut-off valveY4Control means, metering or shut-off valveY5Control means, multi-way dosing valve or shut-off valveY6Control means, metering or shut-off valveY7Control means, metering or shut-off valveY8Control means, check valveαangular distanceβtilt angleClaims (31) Process for the treatment of manure and organic solids for fermentation, in whicha) the organic solids are comminuted by means of a first comminuting device (2, 2, 10, 2, 9, 2, 9, 10),b) suspended in the manure before or after comminution,c) after comminution in suspension by means of a second comminution device (10, 11, 11) comminuted to a maximum extent of a maximum of 5 mm finerd) and be dispersed uniformly in the suspensione) and the dispersion is fed directly or after further treatment of the fermentation. The particles have a maximum extension of a maximum of 5 mm, so are in any of the three dimensions of space longer than 5 mm. For example, they can be shaped as sawteeth whose steep edge is arranged in advance.Device according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the third and the fourth shearing ring are surrounded by the first and the second shearing ring or surrounded by the first and the second shearing ring, so that the shearing beads radially in succession three each about the axis of rotation (R) extending column form and that the biomass is gradually conveyed in the radial direction through these gaps, so that they in a rotary drive of the first and preferably the third Scherkranzes (51) in each of the gaps by means of the shearing shear and Schergegenkanten (57, 67) of the radially each next adjacent Scherkränze is crushed. she is emulsion-like.Although the homogenizer is advantageous in particular in combination with the claimed invention, namely the comminution in several stages, it is also advantageous as such for the treatment of biomass for the purpose of biogas production from said starting materials, in particular a suspension of solid biobar constituents in oneLiquid, such as fibrous solids in manure, water or a mixture of such liquids. The suspension is successively promoted by all crushing stages of all groups of Scherkränzen 51 to 53 and 61 to 63. However, advantageously only biomass having the largest solids content which are smaller than the largest solid constituents in the biomass fed to the fine comminutor is fed to the homogenizer. In the container 4, a stirrer can be arranged. The width of the gap, ie the distance between the axes of rotation of the knife shafts 44 and 45, is preferably chosen so that the solid components after passing through the gap have a maximum extension of at most 5 cm.For the purpose of circulation, the mixture of liquid and solid constituents present in the mixing vessel 4 is returned to the process via a return line 19.5 m wide, between 2 and 4 m high and between 5 and 10 m long. However, in a further alternative, the apparatus may be supplemented by the branches at 72, 73 and 74 and the lines passing from the homogenizer 11 to the comminuter 22 and from the comminutor 10 bypassing the homogenizer 11 to the ultrasonic comminutor 22 or entirely without downstream comminution Feed crusher 10 to outlet A. A crusher, which also promotes the solids to be crushed at the same time, preferably comprises two juxtaposed augers, which are preferably rotationally driven in opposite directions. The Scherkränze are preferably arranged relative to each other inside axis, so that one surrounds the other. Further, the rotor 50 is shaped and arranged to impart an angular momentum about the axis of rotation R to the suspension and the centrifugal force generated promotes the conveyance of the suspension through the homogenizer 11. The next levels - four, five and six - are a repeat of the first three levels.The device is equipped with a mixing device, by means of which the manure and the solids are mixed together.
In addition to being able to separate the particles, even if they are fine sieves, they are vibrated, so that clogging is less likely to occur and the classification efficiency can be greatly improved.That is, since the classification device 5 is provided with the vibration sieve device 109 that can be classified in a plurality of stages, only the aggregate sand of a desired size can be obtained by a simple operation by changing the size of the sieve eyes of each stage.
018.Ye L, Tang C, Chen Y, Yang S, Yang J, Zhang W (2015) One-step extraction of antimony from low-grade stibnite in sodium carbonate—sodium chloride binary molten salt. J Clean Prod 93:134–139. doi:10.2015.jclepro.01.1016/j.
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